As India turns 75, there is little to celebrate | Human Rights

At present, it has been 75 years since India gained its independence from British rule.

The lead-up to this event has been marked by a lot pomp and circumstance. The federal government of India launched the “Azadi ka Amrit Mahotsav” initiative on March 12, 2021, commencing a 75-week countdown to the seventy fifth Independence Day. The initiative is supposed to commemorate the independence battle, have a good time concepts, actions and achievements which have formed the nation and reinforce the nation’s dedication to targets and targets that can take India to larger heights in its journey to 2047, when it should flip 100.

Although, a more in-depth have a look at India’s “report card” reveals that it’s faltering on a number of fronts. As is commonly the case, the Modi authorities has run yet one more profitable advertising marketing campaign that has struck a chord with many voters. However there may be little or no to have a good time about India at 75.

An financial system in disaster

India’s financial system is in disaster and has been since lengthy earlier than the start of the COVID-19 pandemic which devastated the worldwide financial system. Certainly, on the eve of the primary COVID-19 lockdown India’s nominal gross home product (GDP) development was the bottom it has been since 1975-76. Exports and investments have been additionally on a downward pattern.

As was the case the world over, the Indian financial system witnessed a pointy downturn in the course of the pandemic. GDP development declined by 23.9 % and, in 2020-21, the GDP shrank by 7.3 %. The impact of this downturn was felt most severely by the nation’s poorest. In 2021, a study by the Pew Analysis Heart confirmed that the variety of folks in India dwelling on $2 or much less a day elevated by 75 million because of the recession in the course of the pandemic. This improve accounted for 60 % of the “world improve in poverty”. The research additionally discovered that the scale of the Indian center class shrunk by 32 million in 2020. This additionally accounted for 60 % of the “world retreat” from the center class.

At current, India’s financial system now appears to be considerably on the mend. Nonetheless, the present spike in world vitality and meals costs because of the Russian invasion of Ukraine has had a major impact on post-pandemic financial restoration.  Meals and beverage inflation has been consuming the already squeezed family budgets of the poor and center class. In June 2022, the unemployment fee was 7.8 % – a 0.7 % improve from Might. Within the 20-24 age group, the unemployment fee was at 43.7 %. The Indian rupee has additionally been shedding worth in opposition to the greenback and it will have a detrimental impact on import-heavy sectors.

Defective policymaking

Nationwide policymaking has not been a testomony to good governance both. This was all of the extra evident in the course of the pandemic. Whereas India was labeled as a rustic at “excessive threat” of a devastating COVID-19 outbreak quickly after the virus was first recognized in China, the federal government has been sluggish in putting in preventive measures. The World Well being Group (WHO) declared the COVID-19 outbreak a worldwide public well being emergency on January 30, 2020. Nevertheless, Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s first assertion on the pandemic, within the type of a tweet didn’t come till March 3. The Ministry of Well being and Household Welfare launched its COVID-19 consciousness marketing campaign on March 6. Till then, the one public well being recommendation on the matter was coming from the Ministry of AYUSH (Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy). And the AYUSH advisory on COVID included little greater than an inventory of ayurvedic and homoeopathic preventive measures and treatments.

Finally, a nationwide lockdown – with solely four-hour discover – was introduced on March 24. The best way the world’s greatest lockdown was instituted itself was a testomony to unhealthy governance and misplaced political priorities. The 4 hours’ discover was meant to signify resolute management within the face of a worldwide disaster. Nevertheless, with little info on whether or not there could be entry to important commodities in the course of the lockdown, panicked residents ignored all social distancing tips and rushed to the shops to refill on necessities simply earlier than locking down to stop transmission.

The best way the lockdown was applied additionally failed to contemplate the impact it could have on the poor, particularly casual and migrant staff who play a central function within the repairs of the economies of India’s giant cities. As companies shuttered, thousands and thousands discovered themselves jobless and with no technique of transport to return to their villages. Many ended up strolling tons of of miles house, turning the lockdown right into a humanitarian disaster. The prime minister apologised for the impact of the lockdown on the nation’s most weak and stated, “Once I have a look at my poor brothers and sisters, I positively really feel that they should be considering, what sort of prime minister is that this who has positioned us on this problem … I particularly search their forgiveness.” He added, nonetheless, “There was no different technique to wage warfare in opposition to coronavirus … It’s a battle of life and demise and we’ve got to win it.”

When Modi arrange the Prime Minister’s Citizen Help and Aid in Emergency Conditions Fund, it was not mere happenstance that the abbreviation learn “PM CARES Fund”. The aid fund was meant to help the poor. Nevertheless, critics questioned the necessity for such a fund when $500m within the a lot older Prime Minister’s Nationwide Aid Fund remained unused. Some have argued the fund is being utilized by company donors – who’re required by legislation to allocate 2 % of their internet earnings in direction of Company Social Duty (CSR) – to funnel funding that was earmarked for CSR actions. The Ministry of Finance additionally issued an ordinance to make all donations to PM CARES tax-free. The federal government has been reluctant to disclose details about the spending of the funds and lots of have speculated that the fund was a manner for company donors to curry favour with the prime minister.

The second wave of the pandemic devastated India in March 2021. The tragic end result, nonetheless, was not fully surprising. Entry to dependable and inexpensive healthcare is scarce in India. The general public healthcare system is weak and lacks the sources to cope with a worldwide pandemic. The largely unregulated personal healthcare suppliers are additionally unreliable and dear. Non-public and public hospitals ran out of beds in a short time with the surge of infections. With no nationwide oxygen provide coordination system, oxygen producers have been additionally unable to satisfy the wants of areas hardest hit by the pandemic.

However, India might have nonetheless restricted the impression of the second wave on its inhabitants, if solely its authorities took the risk significantly and adopted smart insurance policies. In a bid to spice up his picture, and in opposition to the recommendation of specialists, Modi had already declared victory over the pandemic in January that 12 months. The vaccination drive was additionally sluggish, as the federal government had did not safe sufficient doses of the COVID-19 vaccine for home use – this, regardless of India being the most important producer of vaccines and generic medication. Not lengthy earlier than the onset of the second wave, Modi permitted a big spiritual pageant within the historic metropolis of Haridwar within the state of Uttarakhand. The Kumbh Mela went forward with out following any social distancing precautions and is now thought of the world’s largest super-spreader occasion. The surge in infections in March and April will also be blamed on the Modi authorities’s determination to permit meeting elections at the peak of the pandemic regardless of ample warning that they might pace up transmission.

Islamophobia as public coverage

On its seventy fifth birthday, democracy additionally seems to be in decline in India. The human rights of minority teams are below fixed assault, and Islamophobia has grow to be a public coverage within the nation. Certainly, lynchings, Islamophobic misinformation campaigns and cultural intimidation are an on a regular basis aspect of the lives of Indian Muslims.

In 2019, for instance, the Parliament of India handed the Islamophobic Citizenship Modification Act (CAA). CAA granted a quick observe to Indian citizenship to non-Muslim migrants from neighbouring Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Afghanistan, undermining “constitutional equality” by inserting faith as a qualifier for citizenship. The federal government brutally suppressed the protests in opposition to the act, branding them “anti-national”. Anti-CAA activists have been arrested and denied bail utilizing India’s draconian anti-terror legislation.

Additionally in 2019, the BJP authorities revoked Muslim-majority Kashmir’s particular standing within the Indian structure. The transfer not solely fulfilled the longstanding Hindu nationalist promise to make sure that Indian-administered Kashmir is (no less than constitutionally) an integral a part of territorial India, it additionally established a brand new pathway to Hinduise the state. Moreover, with a view to curb protests in opposition to the revocation of its particular standing and autonomy, the federal government launched a communication blackout and shut down cable TV, web and telephone traces for a number of months throughout the territory.

Silencing opposition

Past its efforts to intimidate and subdue India’s Muslims, the federal government has additionally been engaged in a wider marketing campaign to silence all dissenting voices. In 2021, for instance, it was revealed that Israeli spyware and adware Pegasus was used to surveil opposition politicians, journalists, and activists in India.

Modi and his authorities have additionally spearheaded a crackdown on human rights organisations. In 2020, Amnesty Worldwide needed to shut down its operations in India after its financial institution accounts have been frozen and workplace premises raided. Whereas the federal government insisted that Amnesty had violated rules for receiving donations from overseas, the NGO itself – identical to a lot of the worldwide group – interpreted it as a response to its criticism of India’s human rights file.

Lately, the federal government additionally prevented a number of activists and journalists vital of its insurance policies from travelling overseas. Many authorities critics have additionally been spied on, arrested on terror-related costs, after which held with out trial. Police have been accused of planting incriminating proof on the computer systems of activists and arresting them on bogus costs.

Because of all this, India went down eight locations in contrast with 2019 and ranked 150 amongst 180 nations in Reporters With out Borders’ 2022 Press Freedom Index. It additionally scored simply 66 out of 100 on this 12 months’s Freedom Home Democracy Index and has been positioned within the class of “partially free”.

Admittedly, as this “report card” demonstrates, there may be not a lot for India to have a good time on its seventy fifth birthday. If the nation desires to have one thing actual to have a good time at its subsequent milestone birthday in 2047, it wants to start out acknowledging its many failings and dealing in direction of constructing a extra free, equal and democratic society and state.

The views expressed on this article are the creator’s personal and don’t essentially replicate Al Jazeera’s editorial stance.

India facing football ban over ‘deviations’ from FIFA ‘roadmap’ | Football News

FIFA additionally warned Indian soccer affiliation it dangers dropping U17 Ladies’s World Cup too.

FIFA has reminded India’s soccer affiliation that it dangers dropping the upcoming Beneath-17 Ladies’s World Cup and faces a ban resulting from “deviations” from an agreed street map aimed toward finding out governance points.

In Might, India’s highest courtroom disbanded the All India Soccer Federation (AIFF) and appointed a three-member committee to manipulate the game, amend the AIFF’s structure and conduct elections which were pending for 18 months.

In response, soccer’s world governing physique FIFA and the Asian Soccer Confederation (AFC) despatched a group, led by AFC Normal Secretary Windsor John, to satisfy stakeholders in Indian soccer and laid down a street map for the AIFF to amend its statutes by the top of July and subsequently conclude elections on the newest by September 15.

This week, the Indian courtroom ordered elections to be held promptly and mentioned the elected committee could be an interim physique for a interval of three months.

“As per the mentioned roadmap, the AIFF was to name for a particular common meeting on the primary week of August 2022 to approve the brand new statutes labored upon with FIFA, the AFC and the Indian soccer group,” a letter despatched by FIFA and AFC mentioned.

“Sadly, we’ve got been knowledgeable that the Supreme Court docket’s listening to held yesterday on the scenario of the AIFF allegedly resulted in deviations to the aforementioned roadmap.

“If that is thought-about to be true, it might irrefutably jeopardise the mutual understanding which was displayed to this point on the steps ahead.”

The letter, seen by Reuters information company, was addressed to appearing AIFF common secretary Sunando Dhar and signed by FIFA secretary common Fatma Samoura and AFC’s John.

It requested the Indian physique to supply a transcript of the courtroom’s determination by Tuesday.

FIFA warned that sanctions, if severe deviations to the agreed street map had been discovered, might embrace “the suspension of the AIFF and the withdrawal of the internet hosting rights for the 2022 FIFA U-17 Ladies’s World Cup in India [in October]”.

The elections of the AIFF, previously led by FIFA Council member Praful Patel, had been to be held by December 2020 however had been delayed resulting from an deadlock over amendments to its structure.

FIFA statutes say that member federations should be free from authorized and political interference of their respective nations, and the world governing physique has beforehand suspended different nationwide associations over related instances.

India police detain opposition leaders protesting price rise | Protests News

‘Democracy is a reminiscence,’ tweets Congress chief Rahul Gandhi after police crack down on protests over rising inflation.

Indian police have detained dozens of parliamentarians from the opposition Congress celebration, together with key chief Rahul Gandhi, as they tried to march to the president’s home and the prime minister’s residence to protest hovering meals and gas costs and a rise within the items and providers tax (GST).

Police on Friday additionally detained lots of of celebration supporters within the capital New Delhi to stop them from becoming a member of the protesting leaders, a lot of whom wore black.

A number of ladies protesters cooked meals outdoors the Congress celebration headquarters utilizing wooden for the hearth, saying that cooking fuel costs have risen past the technique of poor and middle-class households.

India Opposition Protest
Indian paramilitary troopers detain a Congress legislator in New Delhi [Altaf Qadri/AP]

In New Delhi, police started barricading the celebration headquarters and houses of its leaders Sonia Gandhi and Rahul Gandhi on Wednesday after the celebration introduced plans to organise countrywide protests in opposition to the federal government of Prime Minister Narendra Modi.

“What we’re witnessing is the demise of democracy in India,” Rahul Gandhi instructed reporters. ”Anyone who stands in opposition to this concept of the onset of dictatorship is viciously attacked, put in jail, arrested, and overwhelmed. The thought is that individuals’s points – whether or not they’re value rises, unemployment, or violence in society – folks’s points should not be raised. That’s the sole agenda of the federal government.”

“Democracy is a reminiscence,” Gandhi later tweeted with pictures of the police crackdown on the protests.

Police prevented the celebration’s efforts to carry comparable marches in Mumbai, India’s monetary capital, Guwahati, and another cities, detaining celebration members and taking them away in buses and different automobiles.

There was no fast remark from the police. The legislators and their supporters had been anticipated to be launched after transient detentions – a common observe by police in such protests.

“That is the worst type of vendetta politics. We is not going to submit! We is not going to be silenced! We’ll proceed to boost our voice in opposition to injustices and failures of the Modi authorities,” the celebration mentioned in a tweet.

Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman defended the federal government’s dealing with of the economic system in parliament earlier this week and mentioned there was zero likelihood of India slipping into recession.

The opposition was infuriated by the federal government’s choice final month to impose a tax on packed milk curd, cheese, buttermilk, packed rice, flour and wheat. The federal government additionally raised gas and fuel costs.

Muslim women in India allege bias in hiring for jobs | Islamophobia News

New Delhi, India – Lubna Aamir, 28, is a dentist by coaching. However practising her occupation stays a dream for her.

After learning dentistry and some years of follow at a authorities school within the western Indian state of Maharashtra, Aamir wished a greater place.

In 2018, the Pune resident began making use of for a job at clinics throughout India by way of e mail. She even dropped resumes in individual at some clinics.

“I wished to department out to what we name the category follow and have an expertise past native circles,” Aamir instructed Al Jazeera.

She utilized for jobs at practically two dozen locations however there was no response regardless of “me having excellent credentials”.

“I had scored glorious grades and had an internship from a authorities school which is way wanted within the dental trade. My work profile was good. Nonetheless, I used to be not getting any response,” she instructed Al Jazeera.

Muslims make up practically 14 % of India’s 1.35 billion inhabitants however should not have the identical illustration in authorities or non-public sector jobs. A number of government-appointed commissions have discovered the group is on the backside amongst India’s social teams when it comes to training and employment.

A kind of commissions, headed by now retired Justice Rajinder Sachar, present in 2006 that India’s Muslims had been deprived in social, financial and academic phrases. Lower than 8 % of them had been employed within the formal sector in contrast with the nationwide common of 21 %, the fee mentioned in its report.

In response to the 2011 census, the final carried out by the federal government because the 2021 train was disrupted by the coronavirus pandemic, the participation of Muslim girls in jobs was lower than 15 %, whereas it was greater than 27 % for Hindu girls. The corresponding figures for Buddhist and Christian girls had been 33 % and 31 %, respectively.

The state of affairs has worsened since 2014 when Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s Hindu nationalist Bharatiya Janata Social gathering (BJP) got here into energy, with the federal government pursuing insurance policies focusing on the Muslim minority and their economic and religious rights.

When she mentioned ‘you do not seem like a Muslim’, I used to be stunned, questioning what she meant.

by Sabah Khan, HR skilled

Doubly marginalised

In a deeply-polarised society, Muslim girls are doubly marginalised. Consultants say they stand on the intersection of gender and non secular variations which considerably will increase their probability of struggling prejudice by potential employers.

“The bias was all the time there however with the dominance of the BJP and RSS, folks have been now calling for the exclusion of Muslims from all of the financial areas,” Apoorvanand, an instructional and activist primarily based in capital New Delhi, instructed Al Jazeera.

“Since this enjoys the safety and patronage usually by the state, it’s now being completed brazenly,” he added.

The RSS refers to Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, a far-right paramilitary group based in 1925 that mentors India’s Hindu supremacist teams, together with the ruling BJP. The organisation, which counts Modi amongst hundreds of thousands of its lifetime members, goals to show secular India into an ethnic Hindu state.

Apoorvanand mentioned the target of the Hindu proper is to “cripple the Muslims economically, pressure them right into a state of deprivation and fixed need in order that they flip right into a everlasting subjugated inhabitants”.

“Politically Muslims have been disempowered. The concept now could be to disempower them in all areas of life,” he mentioned.

For Muslim girls, a lot of it’s about the hijab.

After a number of rejections, dentist Aamir realised it was her identification that was placing her at an obstacle. Had she not been a Muslim, she felt issues would have been totally different.

Throughout her interview at one of many branches of a giant Indian chain of dental clinics, she was requested about her private life and beliefs.

“I answered every part they requested. On the finish of the interview, I used to be requested about my hijab,” she mentioned.

The interviewer requested Aamir upfront if she was prepared to take off her hijab if she labored on the clinic. She refused.

Aamir recollects a human useful resource govt telling her later that they won’t rent her.

“She took me apart and instructed me in non-public that she doesn’t need to maintain my hopes up for the job. She mentioned, ‘I received’t be going forward with you,’” Aamir mentioned.

They’ve an issue with us being Muslims however they’ve a much bigger drawback with us being visibly Muslims.

by Lubna Aamir, Dentist

Determined for a job, Aamir switched from scientific to the non-clinical discipline. She is now working as a senior medical knowledge analyst in a bioinformatics firm that focuses on most cancers analysis.

“I needed to make powerful choices. The sensation of not doing the sufferers was like I’m not doing sufficient being a physician. It initiates a deep spiral inside you,” she mentioned.

Shaila Irfan, 32, was a trainer at one in every of New Delhi’s largest chains of English-medium faculties. Every part was going easily till somebody from the administration requested her if she really needed to wear the hijab.

“They politely requested me to take off my hijab as a result of college students and academics are uncomfortable with it,” Irfan instructed Al Jazeera.

She left the job with out arguing with the administration and commenced in search of a brand new job. She cleared the interview at one other college however was instructed there could be “one other spherical” of it.

“This time they requested if I’ll take off the hijab. I used to be not employed as a result of I refused to take away it,” mentioned Irfan.

‘Hiring bias’

A research printed in June by LedBy Basis, a management incubator that focuses on the skilled growth of Muslims, has additionally revealed discrimination and bias in opposition to Muslim girls within the hiring course of for entry-level jobs in numerous sectors.

The “Hiring Bias” research highlights extreme hiring bias in opposition to Muslim girls even in situations the place they had been equally certified for the job.

LedBy Basis mentioned it created two equally certified résumés. The one distinction was of their names: Habiba Ali for the Muslim profile and Priyanka Sharma for the Hindu.

Over 10 months, the muse responded to 1,000 job postings on the skilled networking website LinkedIn by sending functions within the names of the 2 girls.

It discovered the web discrimination price was 47.1 % because the Hindu lady obtained 208 constructive responses, whereas the Muslim lady obtained solely 103.

This was evident throughout industries. Recruiters had been extra cordial to the Hindu candidate. Greater than 41 % of the recruiters related with Sharma over telephone calls, whereas solely 12.6 % did the identical with Ali.

An identical research, “Being a Muslim on the Office” by Mumbai-based feminist collective Parcham, discovered that even in metropolitan cities equivalent to New Delhi and Mumbai, Muslims proceed to face prejudice within the formal sector.

The report famous {that a} shortage of Muslim girls within the formal sector factors out to a scientific and institutionalised push in the direction of an financial exclusion of Muslims.

“Our research notes the other ways by which discrimination happens to exclude Muslims from the workforce. Ladies had been doubly marginalised. Unchecked bullying, suspecting the nationalism of Muslims, and making assumptions primarily based on bigoted notions of Muslims had been so frequent,” mentioned the report.

In 2018, Sabah Khan (first identify modified), a 28-year-old from town of Lucknow in north India’s Uttar Pradesh state, utilized for human useful resource positions at a number of corporations round New Delhi after gaining work expertise of three years.

A number one Indian media firm with a sprawling workplace in Gurugram, a bustling New Delhi suburb and residential to dozens of Fortune 500 corporations, invited her for an interview with the HR supervisor.

“Her first query was about my identify. I solely write my first identify in my CV. So the HR supervisor inquired about my surname,” Khan instructed Al Jazeera.

Khan, who doesn’t put on a hijab, was then instructed she doesn’t seem like a Muslim.

“When she mentioned ‘you don’t seem like a Muslim’, I used to be stunned, questioning what she meant. I believed she might need an thought about how Muslim girls ought to look,” mentioned Khan.

Khan ignored the remarks and determined to give attention to the interview. The following stereotypical query was whether or not her household would permit her to work.

“I used to be anticipating her to speak about my job,” Khan mentioned.

By then, she knew she wouldn’t be chosen for the job. As she left, she was instructed to attend to listen to again from the corporate. She by no means did.

Ruha Shadab, the founder and CEO of LedBy Basis, says conversations in regards to the experiences of Muslim girls from numerous backgrounds getting into the office revealed some anecdotal insights about “seen and refined discriminatory responses and tendencies” from the recruiters.

“This prompted us to surprise what was the quantifiable proof behind these experiences and the way these anecdotes could possibly be transformed into quantifiable proof. We tried to establish the obstacles to Muslim girls’s labour-force participation on this research,” she mentioned.

Their research, says Shadab, demonstrates that prejudice within the hiring course of is extraordinarily frequent in India and might take two types.

“One could be an express bias, the place the person is acutely aware of and believes of their prejudice in opposition to Muslims and Muslim girls specifically. They’re genuinely prejudiced in opposition to Muslims and are extraordinarily vocal about it. The second methodology of discrimination is the implicit one, by which those that help the Hindu candidate will not be doing so with full consciousness. As a result of implicit prejudices, they discriminate unintentionally,” defined Shadab.

Dentist Aamir says she felt her identification, the one she was all the time pleased with, had changed into an impediment.

“They’ve an issue with us being Muslims however they’ve a much bigger drawback with us being visibly Muslims,” she instructed Al Jazeera.

India wants to open up lithium mining in quest for batteries | Mining News

The gov’t needs approval to amend legal guidelines to permit non-public companies to extract lithium, the important thing uncooked materials for EV batteries.

By Bloomberg

India is in search of to alter legal guidelines to permit non-public miners to extract lithium, the important thing ingredient for batteries used for electrical autos and power storage, because the nation goals to be extra self-sufficient in inexperienced applied sciences.

Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s authorities needs lawmakers’ approval for amendments to current insurance policies within the present session of parliament, in keeping with individuals aware of the plans. Eight minerals, together with lithium, beryllium and zirconium might be faraway from a restricted listing that at present prohibits manufacturing by non-public firms.

The adjustments would permit the federal government to public sale permits to take advantage of lithium reserves, the individuals stated, asking to not be named because the matter is just not but public. They’re additionally geared toward lowering India’s dependence on imports for some key minerals, and to place the nation in a greater place to compete within the profitable battery provide chain, in keeping with the individuals.

A mines ministry spokesperson didn’t instantly reply to a request for remark.

India needs so as to add native manufacturing of a swathe of zero-emissions applied sciences because it chases a goal of changing into carbon impartial by 2070 and to seize alternatives from the worldwide transition to cleaner power. The nation has pledged to construct 500 gigawatts of fresh energy capability by 2030, and the deployment of giant volumes of battery storage is seen as important to allow round the clock use of renewables.

Authorities companies have been exploring for lithium and found a small useful resource at a web site in southern Karnataka state, in keeping with the mines ministry. Nonetheless, to provide lithium at any significant scale and scale back reliance on imports, India would want to seek out and develop additional deposits.

Australia and Chile at present dominate uncooked supplies output, whereas China on the planet’s largest refiner.

India’s imports of lithium-ion batteries jumped 54% from a 12 months earlier to $1.83 billion within the 12 months ended March, commerce ministry knowledge present. Virtually 87% of the purchases got here from China and Hong Kong, regardless of India’s efforts to shun imports from its northern neighbor

In addition to effort to spice up native output, the nation can be scouting for lithium and cobalt belongings abroad. A three way partnership has been shaped with three state firms —  Nationwide Aluminium Co., Hindustan Copper Ltd. and Mineral Exploration Corp. — to accumulate mines abroad.